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HYPOTHESIS

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Behavior Targeting
» Data count: 142

Cigarette's effect of enhancing/mitigating specific behaviors
Candy-like flavors
» Data count: 0

Unique flavor technologies, particularly those developed or introduced post-MSA, which alter smoke chemistry or delivery and are appealing to youth or other at-risk populations.
Compensation
» Data count: 50

Incorporating knowledge of compensation and effects of human smoking behavior into cigarette design.
Design changes over time
» Data count: 241

Changes in cigarette design over the past half century.
Elasticity and Product Control
» Data count: 379

Free Nicotine
» Data count: 439

FTC machine testing and ratings
» Data count: 87

Design changes to achieve altered FTC smoke machine tar and nicotine ratings, with or without measured changes in human intake.
Health effects
» Data count: 69

Design changes which have measurably altered health effects of cigarette smoke, both for smokers and nonsmokers.
Inhalation Profile
» Data count: 78

Are cigarettes designed to cater to individual inhalation profiles?
Introduction of new/unconventional products
» Data count: 430

Research and development of novel nicotine delivery devices and experimental tobacco designs.
Low-yield cigarettes
» Data count: 139

Modification of low yield products to assure that adequate levels of nicotine delivery are maintained, and effects of yield changes on toxicity and dependence.
Mainstream constituent yields
» Data count: 221

Modification of selected mainstream smoke constituents in response to health concerns.
Measuring human intake
» Data count: 75

Development of scientifically valid procedures for measuring tar and nicotine levels that more accurately reflect human intake.
Measuring human smoking behavior
» Data count: 95

Measuring the effects of changes in human smoking behavior on intake of nicotine and smoke constituents.
Measuring overall toxicity
» Data count: 26

Development of scientifically valid protocols and methods for testing the health and toxicity effects of changes in product design.
Nicotine transport, transfer, and uptake
» Data count: 330

Design changes which alter nicotine delivery or effect how the product causes and maintains dependence, including transfer of nicotine from tobacco to smoke, and uptake into the body.
No additive cigarettes
» Data count: 0

Perceptions of ETS
» Data count: 22

Design changes to reduce perception of environmental tobacco smoke among smokers and nonsmokers in response to public concerns about the dangers of ETS.
Product design targets (women/minorities)
» Data count: 6

Design changes targeting specific demographic segments such as women or minorities (slims/menthols/etc).
Sensory effects
» Data count: 0

Technologies used to measure, control, or alter sensory effects
Sensory targeting
» Data count: 0

Targeting of smokers through changes in sensory characteristics
Sidestream constituent yields
» Data count: 43

Modification of selected sidestream smoke constituents in response to health concerns.
Smoke constituent testing
» Data count: 178

Development of methods for measurement of gas and particulate yields in mainstream and sidestream smoke.
Smoking psychology and behavior
» Data count: 322

Toxicity and consumer intake
» Data count: 47

Development of scientifically valid procedures for measuring biological activity and neurological effects of nicotine and smoke constituents.
Use of additives
» Data count: 621

Modification of tobacco products through use of additives and measuring effects on dependence, behavior, and toxicity.
Use of filters, paper, and ventilation
» Data count: 413

Modification of tobacco products through use of filters, paper, and ventilation, and measuring effects on dependence, behavior, and toxicity.
Use of tobacco processing/ blends
» Data count: 223

Modification of tobacco products through changes in tobacco processing and use of blends, and measuring effects on dependence, behavior, and toxicity.
Women Targeting
» Data count: 78

Cigarettes designed to target women
Youth initiation/ youth products
» Data count: 60

Design changes affecting youth smoking or encouraging young adults to become regular smokers.