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Testing Footnotes
Tac
Test of Footnotes This is just a test of footnotes. Footnote format is <pre> footnote_number, collection_code/document_code (note) </pre> Multiple documents can be cited in the same footnote by leaving the footnote number blank and putting the codes on a separate line. Put a zero for the footnote number for automatic numbering. The note in parenthesis is optional.
Status: Initial Research
Tobacco Documents Online Marked as Private
WHO:

Great WHO paper, not all the footnotes are in, just the ones that can be linked to TDO.
Status: Documents Collected
WHO: World Health Organization
The case for fire safe cigarettes made through industry documents
Gunja M, Ferris Wayne G, Landman A, Connolly G, McGuire A, Koh H
It is well documented that cigarette caused fires are responsible for 1000 deaths and billions of dollars in other damages each year. For years, the tobacco industry has claimed that they do not know how to manufacture a commercially viable fire safe cigarette. However, the recent release of industry documents due to the Master Settlement Agreement has shed new light on what the industry knew about fire safe cigarettes. These internal company documents reveal that the tobacco industry has known how to create a fire safe cigarette for some time. The documents also illuminate tactics used by the tobacco industry to block and otherwise influence fire safe legislation. This article will inform effective use of state and federal legislation to address cigarettes related fires. It will also add to understanding of industry counter strategies that are aimed at and directly impact public health outcomes.
Status: Submitted for Publication
Mass. Tobacco Control Program
One size does not fit all: how the tobacco industry has altered cigarette design to target consumer groups with specific psychological and psychosocial needs
Cook B, Ferris Wayne G, Keithly L, Connolly G
Analysis of internal industry documents provides the most direct means for assessing whether cigarette design changes have been used by the tobacco industry to target specific psychological and psychosocial needs. First, we determine how needs-based segmentation has been utilized within the industry. Second, we identify experiments that matched cigarette design to correspond to these identified needs-based segments, and show how these studies translated into new product development. We find that the industry altered product design to target smoker groups with similar psychological and psychosocial needs. These findings have implications for tobacco cessation as well as for the regulation and monitoring of the tobacco industry.
Status: Submitted for Publication
Mass. Tobacco Control Program
Failed promises of the cigarette industry and its effect on consumer misperceptions about the health risks of smoking
K M Cummings, C P Morley and A Hyland
Examines the extent to which cigarette companies fulfilled the promises made to consumers in the 1954 "Frank Statement", and the effect of these promises on consumer knowledge, beliefs, and smoking practices. Results: Analysis of public statements issued by the tobacco industry sources over the past five decades shows that the companies maintained the stance that smoking had not been proven to be injurious to health through 1999. The public statements of the tobacco industry are in sharp contrast to the private views expressed by many of their own scientists. The tobacco documents reveal that many scientists within the tobacco industry acknowledged as early as the 1950s that cigarette smoking was unsafe. The sincerity of the industry's promise to support research to find out if smoking was harmful to health and to disclose information about the health effects of smoking can also be questioned based upon the industry's own documents which reveal: (1) scepticism about the scientific value of the smoking and health research program established by the industry; and (2) evidence that research findings implicating smoking as a health problem were often not published or disclosed outside the industry. Industry documents also show that the companies knew that their own customers were misinformed about smoking and health issues.
Status: Documents Collected
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Exposing Mr. Butts' tricks of the trade
KM Cummings, RW Pollay
Introduction to the second wave of research papers based on tobacco industry documents published as in the March 2002 supplement to Tobacco Control. The papers presented in the issue are based on the approximately 33 million pages of tobacco industry documents released as part of a settlement agreement between the tobacco industry and the Minnesota attorney general's office stemming from lawsuit over payment of insurance claims for treatment of tobacco caused illnesses.
Status: Documents Collected
Marketing to America\\\'s youth: evidence from corporate documents
K M Cummings, C P Morley, J K Horan, C Steger and N-R Leavell
Objective: To evaluate the claim that the tobacco industry does not market its products to youth. Design: The data for this study come from tobacco industry documents collected from the tobacco industry\\\\\\\'s document websites, presently linked at http://www.tobaccoarchives.com. The websites were searched \\\\\\\"request for production\\\\\\\" (RFP) codes, specified keyword searches, and serendipitous terms identified in document citations found with RFP and keyword searches. Results: Industry documents show that the cigarette manufacturers carefully monitored the smoking habits of teenagers over the past several decades. Candid quotes from industry executives refer to youth as a source of sales and as fundamental to the survival of the tobacco industry. The documents reveal that the features of cigarette brands (that is, use of filters, low tar, bland taste, etc), packaging (that is, size, colour and design), and advertising (that is, media placements and themes and imagery) were developed specifically to appeal to new smokers (that is, teenagers). Evidence also indicates that relevant youth oriented marketing documents may have been destroyed and that the language used in some of the more recent documents may have been sanitised to cover up efforts to market to youth.
Status: Documents Collected
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
The cigarette pack as image: new evidence from tobacco industry documents
M Wakefield, C Morley, J K Horan and K M Cummings
Objectives: To gain an understanding of the role of pack design in tobacco marketing. Methods: A search of tobacco company document sites using a list of specified search terms was undertaken during November 2000 to July 2001. Results: Documents show that, especially in the context of tighter restrictions on conventional avenues for tobacco marketing, tobacco companies view cigarette packaging as an integral component of marketing strategy and a vehicle for (a) creating significant in-store presence at the point of purchase, and (b) communicating brand image. Market testing results indicate that such imagery is so strong as to influence smoker\'s taste ratings of the same cigarettes when packaged differently. Documents also reveal the careful balancing act that companies have employed in using pack design and colour to communicate the impression of lower tar or milder cigarettes, while preserving perceived taste and \"satisfaction\". Systematic and extensive research is carried out by tobacco companies to ensure that cigarette packaging appeals to selected target groups, including young adults and women.
Status: Documents Collected
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Tax, price and cigarette smoking: evidence from the tobacco documents and implications for tobacco company marketing strategies
F J Chaloupka, K M Cummings, CP Morley and JK Horan
Examines tobacco company documents to determine what the companies knew about the impact of cigarette prices on smoking among youth, young adults, and adults, and to evaluate how this understanding affected their pricing and price related marketing strategies. Results: Tobacco company documents provide clear evidence on the impact ocigarette prices on cigarette smoking, describing how tax related and other price increases lead to significant reductions in smoking, particularly among young persons. This information was very important in developing the industry\\\'s pricing strategies, including the development of lower price branded generics and the pass through of cigarette excise tax increases, and in developing a variety of price related marketing efforts, including multi-pack discounts, couponing, and others. Conclusions: Pricing and price related promotions are among the most important marketing tools employed by tobacco companies. Future tobacco control efforts that aim to raise prices and limit price related marketing efforts are likely to be important in achieving reductions in tobacco use and the public health toll caused by tobacco.
Status: Documents Collected
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Cigarettes with defective filters marketed for 40 years: what Philip Morris never told smokers
J L Pauly, A B Mepani, J D Lesses, K M Cummings and R J Streck
More than 90% of the cigarettes sold worldwide have a filter. Nearly all filters consist of a rod of numerous ( > 12 000) plastic-like cellulose acetate fibres. During high speed cigarette manufacturing procedures, fragments of cellulose acetate that form the mouthpiece of a filter rod become separated from the filter at the end face. In smoking a cigarette, some of these fragments are released during puffing. In addition to the cellulose acetate fragments, carbon particles are released also from some cigarette brands that have a charcoal filter. Cigarettes with filters that release cellulose acetate or carbon particles during normal smoking conditions are defective. Objective: Specific goals were to review systematically the writings of tobacco companies to: (a) identify papers that would document the existence of defective filters; (b) characterise the extent of the defect; (c) establish when the defect became known; (d) determine whether the defect exists on cigarettes marketed currently; (e) assess the prevalence of the defect on cigarettes manufactured by different companies; (f) define whether the knowledge of the defect had been withheld by the tobacco company as confidential and not disclosed publicly; and (g) ascertain the feasibility of correcting or preventing the defect.
Status: Documents Collected
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Tobacco Institute lobbying at the state and local levels of government in the 1990s
C P Morley, K M Cummings, A Hyland, G A Giovino and J K Horan
Describes variations in Tobacco Institute (TI) lobbying expenditures across states and test whether these expenditures vary in relationship to measures of tobacco control activity at the state level.
Status: Documents Collected
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Turning free speech into commercial speech: Philip Morris' efforts to control U.S. and European media on secondhand smoke
Muggli ME, Hurt RD Mayo Clinic
Philip Morris set up a journalist program to create favorable press accounts for over a decade in the U.S. and Europe.
Status: Working Draft
Mayo Clinic
"Avoid health warnings on all tobacco products for just as long as we can": a history of tobacco industry efforts to avoid, delay and dilute health warnings on cigarettes
Chapman S, Carter SM
Objective: To review critically the history of Australian tobacco industry efforts to avoid, delay, and dilute pack warnings on cigarettes. Design: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: Four industry strategies and six recurrent arguments used by the industry are described, which were used to thwart the passage of three generations of health warnings (implemented in 1973, 1987, and 1995). These strategies are shown to have been associated with major delays in the implementation of the warnings and in keeping them inconspicuous, unattributed to the industry and non-specific, and particularly in delaying the use of warnings about addiction. The industry today continues to oppose warnings, which might ‘‘repel’’ smokers from tobacco use. Conclusions: Efforts by governments to introduce potent health warnings will be resisted by the tobacco industry. Tobacco control advocates should anticipate and counter the strategies and arguments used by the industry, which are described in this paper if they wish to maximise the use of the pack as a vehicle for raising awareness about the harms of smoking.
Status: Published: Tob Control 2003;12 (Suppl 3):13-22
Simon Chapman's Group
Use of menthol in cigarettes, its pharmacological and toxocological effects
Ferris Wayne G, Garrett B, Connolly G, Henningfield J
Menthol cigarettes are the only additive-based cigarette market category, constituting more than a quarter of the overall market. Public health research has suggested patterns of use of mentholated brands as a potential explanation for the health disparities between black (largely menthol) and white (largely non-menthol) smokers, and has explored the effects of menthol on smoker behavior, consumption patterns and consequent delivery of smoke constituents. However, few published studies have directly examined the biochemical and physiological impact of menthol delivery in cigarettes. Reviewed studies describe a range of physiological and respiratory effects of menthol that may effect perception of menthol in cigarettes. These effects could have important implications for use patterns and uptake, as well as increased toxic effects. Most significant from a public health perspective is the potential for increased uptake of nicotine and smoke constituents due to reduced perception of irritation, enhanced absorption, and deeper/ longer inhalation; increased toxicity and respiratory irritation; and potential CNS effects produced by prolonged menthol uptake. However, further studies are needed in these areas. We conclude that the unique design of menthol cigarettes and their potential effects should be considered separately from non-menthol cigarettes in research, cessation treatment, and developing and enacting tobacco product regulations.
Status: In Internal Review
Mass. Tobacco Control Program
Free nicotine and “smoke pH”: evaluating industry methods used to determine the form of nicotine delivered in smoke
Ferris Wayne G, Connolly G, Heningfield J, Pankow J
Looks at internal industry measures of “smoke pH” and their relation to industry measures of free nicotine in cigarette smoke. Presents findings suggesting significant differences in levels of free nicotine across brands, and proposes that the public health community would benefit from research to assess directly the amount of free nicotine available in cigarette smoke.
Status: Working Draft
Mass. Tobacco Control Program
Designing the perfect drug delivery device: manipulation and control of cigarette smoke yield, intake, and smoker behavior
Ferris Wayne G
Identifies changes in cigarette product design that may affect smoker behavior or alter patterns of smoke delivery and intake. Findings suggest that cigarette design is more successful to the degree that it allows a smoker precise control over smoke delivery throughout the smoking of the cigarette.
Status: Working Draft
Mass. Tobacco Control Program
Effects of levulinic acid on smoke perception and uptake
Cullen D, Ferris Wayne G, Connolly G
Effects of levulinic acid as case study of possible impact of additives in cigarettes. Includes effects on smoke perception (smoothness), smoke pH/ form of nicotine, and binding of nicotine in brain.
Status: Working Draft
Mass. Tobacco Control Program
Internal industry measures of human smoking, behavior, effects of compensation, and uptake of smoke constituents
Roy D, Ferris Wayne G, Connolly G

Status: Documents Collected
Mass. Tobacco Control Program
Targeting appetite control/ body weight via product design and additives
Cook B, Ferris Wayne G, Connolly G

Status: Working Draft
Mass. Tobacco Control Program
Effects of particle size on smoke deposition and uptake


Status: Initial Research
Mass. Tobacco Control Program
How cigarette design can affect youth initiation into smoking: Camel cigarettes 1983-93
Wayne GF, Connolly GN
CONTEXT: Internal industry documents may shed light on how cigarettes are designed to promote youth smoking. OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in the design of Camel cigarettes in the period surrounding the "Smooth Character" advertising campaign and to assess the impact of these changes on youth smoking. DATA SOURCES: Internal documents made available through the document website maintained by RJ Reynolds, manufacturer of Camel cigarettes. STUDY SELECTION: Electronic searches using keywords to identify relevant data. DATA EXTRACTION: A web based index search of documents targeting "smoothness" or "harshness" and "younger adult smokers" ("YAS") or "first usual brand younger adult smokers" ("FUBYAS") in the 10 year period surrounding the introduction of the "Smooth Character" campaign was used to identify Camel related product design research projects. A snowball methodology was used: initial documents were identified by focusing on key words, codes, researchers, committees, meetings, and gaps in overall chronology; a second set of documents was culled from these initial documents, and so on. DATA SYNTHESIS: Product design research led to the introduction of redesigned Camel cigarettes targeted to younger adult males coinciding with the "Smooth Character" campaign. Further refinements in Camel cigarettes during the following five year period continued to emphasise the smoothness of the cigarette, utilising additives and blends which reduced throat irritation but increased or retained nicotine impact. CONCLUSIONS: Industry competition for market share among younger adult smokers may have contributed to the reversal of a decline in youth smoking rates during the late 1980s through development of products which were more appealing to youth smokers and which aided in initiation by reducing harshness and irritation.
Status: Published: Tob Control. 2002 Mar;11 Suppl 1:I32-9.
Mass. Tobacco Control Program
How cigarette additives are used to mask environmental tobacco smoke
Connolly GN, Wayne GD, Lymperis D, Doherty MC
OBJECTIVE: To understand the tobacco industry's research on and use of cigarette additives that alter the perception of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). DATA SOURCES: Internal documents from four websites maintained by the major US tobacco manufacturers and company patents pertaining to the use of ETS altering additives obtained from the US Patent and Trademark Office online database. STUDY SELECTION: Electronic searches of the four industry websites and the US patent database were conducted using keywords to identify relevant data. DATA EXTRACTION: Industry documents and patents obtained using an exploratory snowball sampling method were reviewed and grouped into four general categories according to whether the additive(s) described affected ETS visibility, odour, irritation, or emissions. Accuracy of isolated findings was validated through cross comparison of the data sources. DATA SYNTHESIS: Results of this preliminary study provide evidence that tobacco manufacturers have conducted extensive research on the use of chemical additives to reduce, mask, or otherwise alter the visibility, odour, irritation, or emission of ETS. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the tobacco industry uses additives to reduce the perception of ETS. To protect the public, appropriate regulation of tobacco additives should be mandated.
Status: Published: Tob Control. 2000 Sep;9(3):283-91.
Mass. Tobacco Control Program
"Conclusions about exposure to ETS and health that will be unhelpful to us": how the tobacco industry attempted to delay and discredit the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council report on passive smoking
Trotter L, Chapman S
Background: Major reviews of the health effects of passive smoking have been subjected to tobacco industry campaigns to refute the scientific evidence. Following the 1992 US Environmental Protection Agency review, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) initiated a review of the health effects of passive smoking. At the time of this review, evidence that environmental tobacco smoke causes disease was being increasingly accepted in courts of law and voluntary adoption of smoking restrictions was rapidly growing. Objective: To demonstrate how the tobacco industry attempted to delay and discredit the publication of a report on passive smoking that the tobacco industry anticipated to contain recommendations that would be unfavourable to their business. Methods: A search of tobacco industry documents on the Master Settlement Agreement websites was conducted using the terms and acronyms representative of the NHMRC review. Results: The tobacco industry sought to impede the progress of the NHMRC Working Party by launching an intensive campaign to delay and discredit the report. The main strategies used were attempts to criticize the science, extensive use of Freedom of Information provisions to monitor all activity of the group, legal challenges, ad hominem attacks on the credibility of the Working Party members, rallying support from industry allies, and influencing public opinion through the media. Conclusions: The Australian tobacco industry deliberately impeded the NHMRC Working Party’s progress and successfully prevented the publication of the report’s recommendations. The tobacco industry’s motivation and capacity to disrupt the advancement of scientific knowledge and policy in tobacco control should be recognised and anticipated.
Status: Published: Tob Control 2003;12 (Suppl 3):102-06
Simon Chapman's Group
"We are anxious to remain anonymous": the use of third party scientific and medical consultants by the Australian tobacco industry, 1969 to 1979
Chapman S
Objective: To document the history of visits to Australia by tobacco industry sponsored scientists and news media reports about smoking and health matters generated by their visits. Design: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: At least nine sponsored scientists visited Australia from 1969 until 1979. The industry sought to promote the scientists as independent from the industry and on occasion, scientists publicly lied about their industry connections. The industry was sometimes delighted with the extensive and favourable media coverage given to the visits. Conclusions: These media reports are likely to have influenced many who were exposed to them to believe that the evidence against smoking remained equivocal.
Status: Published: Tob Control 2003;12 (Suppl 3):31-37
Simon Chapman's Group
"A Deep Fragrance of Academia": the Australian Tobacco Research Foundation
Chapman S, Peters, M, Carter, SM
Objectives: (1) To review the history of the tobacco industry supported Australian Tobacco Research Foundation (ATRF) (1970–1994) for evidence of the industry’s use of the Foundation to further its objectives that ‘‘more research was needed’’ on smoking and health and to promulgate the view that nicotine was not addictive. (2) To review efforts by public health advocates to discredit the ATRF as a public relations tool used by the Australian industry. Methods: Systematic search of previously internal industry documents released through the US Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The ATRF was headed by prestigious Australian medical scientists, with at least one considered by the industry to be ‘‘industry positive’’. An international ATRF symposium on nicotine was vetted by the industry and heavily attended by industry approved scientists. Following sustained criticism from the health and medical community about the industry’s creation of the ATRF to further its objectives, the ATRF’s scientific committee was provoked to publicly declare in 1988 that smoking was a causative agent in disease. This criticism led to growing ATRF boycotts by scientists and substandard applications, causing the industry to see the ATRF as being poor value-for-money and eventually abandoning it. Conclusions: The raison d’etre for the ATRF’s establishment was to allow the Australian industry to point to its continuing commitment to independent medical research, with the implied corollary that tobacco control measures were premature in the face of insufficient evidence about tobacco’s harms. Sustained criticism of tobacco industry funded research schemes can undermine their credibility among the scientific community.
Status: Published: Tob Control 2003;12 (Suppl 3):38-44
Simon Chapman's Group
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