Requests funds in the amount of $50,000.00 per year for five years to support activities of American Health Foundation's Division of Epidemiology. Offers brief summary of epidemiological activities of the Division: "focuses on the investigation of the relationship between lifestyle and environmental exposures to cancer and other major chronic illnesses, chiefly cancer and heart disease." Encloses copy of annual report [missing]. AHF letterhead includes names and affiliation of Board of Trustee members.
Handwritten letter, only partially legible.
Discusses use of scientists [for what purpose is unclear], and the estimated costs associated with this activity. Mentions use of Covington & Burling. Comments on three specific scientists, and states that "the problem in general is "a) how to approach such people b) how to interest them [and] c) how to maintain their interest."
Debates criteria for funding scientific proposals. States that WSA's business is to support research that is scientifically sound, and that which supports information needs of the company based on the current regulatory/litigation environment. Opines, "grants that provide the company information should be approved only if we need the information and the design and investigators are qualified to do the work." Cites ETS examples. Argues that information needs of the company vary from one country to another, but are "dominated by US thinking." Argues that proposals not approved for funding might still be funded by outside organizations, under the administration of WSA.
Recounts opinion of Bob Pages, in relation to the EPA revised environmental tobacco smoke risk assessment, OSHA activities, and future R&D programs. Notes projected release date of the EPA report and states, "we should watch for this and stay in touch with Pages to gain access to it." Reports Pages' belief that the report may influence activist movement in foreign markets, and that RJR has "capitulated to the antismoking activists." States that the industry is pushing for faster action by OSHA to avoid backlash from potential workplace smoking legislation. States that Pages "feels that rapid progress on odor and smoke visibility may be helpful. He expressed his opinion that whereas smoke visibility is a perception problem, odor is a real problem. Therefore, addressing odor issues would be of some value."
Lists name and affiliation of CIAR meeting participants, all hailing from within the tobacco industry.
Reports on importance of CIAR to the industry and what repercussions would arise from its demise. Claims that CIAR "represents credible, quality science and provides a vehicle for its support and conduct" whose "credibility derives from support of independent investigators and the involvement of the CIAR SAB." Notes that "some scientists can accept support from CIAR but NOT from tobacco cos." Emphasizes need to maintain RJR membership in order to fund new research. States that CIAR is a significant source of funding for indoor air research and that its demise would result in a public perception that the industry was never serious about the ETS/IAQ issue, or that it has "conceded the issue is lost." Lists current issues that would be negatively impacted by demise of CIAR: regulations, litigation, contacts with scientific community, and loss of "vehicle for conduct and monitoring of research projects (US and overseas)." Questions the international repercussions in light of an upcoming IARC study release.
Outlines plan for assessing and mitigating the impact of the IARC study on ETS exposure and lung cancer in nonsmokers. Asks, "Do we want to have an impact on study findings? Can we? If yes, what opportunities exists formally or informally to enable intervention? Are there pre-publication peer or committee reviews?" States assumption that the study will find some elevated risk in lung cancer among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, and lists plans to use media to address this outcome (spokespeople, scientists, journalists, op-eds). Suggests evaluation of legislative/regulatory impact of the study and "locking in - via legislation or regulation - acceptable solutions to accommodate smoking in public places in lieu of waiting for less desirable alternatives post-IARC." Suggests evaluation of IARC's credibility in scientific community and discrediting other ETS-related studies to potentially minimize impact of IARC report. Includes many handwritten notes.
Recounts respective meetings with Italian epidemiologists on tobacco-related issues, mainly ETS. Identifies the name and affiliated organization of each scientist, and the general disposition of each toward smoking and health issues. Notes that a copy of "the Hazelton final report" was given to many, and that commentary was solicited from each. Notes interest of two of the scientists in future meetings at Neuchatel.
Estimates budget for ETS/IARC project, itemized as follows: information gathering (15k per initiative), IEMC projects (100k), communications "between experts with helpful opinions and study collaborators and/or regulatory people" (100-200k), and future ARISE meeting (75k).
Announces date, time and location of meeting with RJR representatives. Notes that "food and drink will be available, but General Goold should bring his own nico[ine] delivery device."
Lists start/end date, objective and project leader for ETS and sidestream smoke research studies conducted between 1981 and 1990. Includes notes on final report for each, where applicable. Notes that "before 1981, research activities were only classified under generic names [and] . . .dealt, among other topics, with sidestream studies, but no reports were published. This activity was essentially aimed at measuring nitrosamines, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen in sidestream smoke. . . The only trace of this activity is the monthly reporting that was performed at the time."
Lists accomplishments of the "Nicotine Program" by subject area: 1) synthesis and chemistry of nicotine analogues 2)behavioral pharmacology and 3)external pharmacology. Notes under "synthesis of analogues" that "2'-Methylnicotine is of particular interest since it is equipotent with nicotine in behavioral studies and causes hypotension in rats injected via the jugular vein." States that in behavioral pharmacology studies, "we have demonstrated in our laboratory that nicotine can function as an intravenously delivered positive reinforcer in rats" and that behavioral disruptions occur in rats for 10-12 minutes after infusion of nicotine. Comments that "this represents a substantial improvement over Dr. Abood's activity scale where recovery is apparent in 3-5 minutes." Notes Dr. Abood's continued support of the Nicotine Program and lists activities of his lab including testing nicotine analogues "for binding to glass fiber filters, rat blood pressure and prostration syndrome."
Outlines plan for IARC multi-national (7 European countries) epidemiological study of ETS exposure and lung cancer in non-smokers, and release of a monograph comprising a "qualitative review of all major peer reviewed and government studies on ETS resulting in a risk classification for ETS." Emphasizes Philip Morris' objectives in relation to the study: 1) "ensure the best possible outcome of the IARC initiatives" and 2) "mitigate the impact of the study and monograph on public policy, voluntary restrictions and public opinion." Details the elements of PM's involvement including the creation of a PM Task Force and an "intra-industry working group" with representatives from BAT, Imperial, PM, Reemtsma, Rothman's and RJR, with the acronym "IEMC". Names members of PM Task Force, including affiliations (PM, Shook Hardy & Bacon, Covington & Burling, EEMA and Burson-Marstellar). Highlights plans that focus on "education" of regulators/legislators on "risk evaluation, ETS science and limits of epidemiology," mobilization of allies in various sectors, endorsement of "good epidemiological practices," and wide use of varied media outlets. Lists and charts criteria for selection of study sites.
Reviews current state of development of alternative smoking products within the tobacco industry. Identifies products and patent information for RJR, PM, JT (Japan Tobacco) and BAT. Briefly explains technologies currently under development: 1)carbon based fuel separated from the aerosol generating material, i.e. "stationary furnace device" (Premier/Eclipse), electrical heating devices that generate an aerosol, "cold aerosol/vapor" generating devices, and "moving furnace heat sources." Opines that RJR is leading the industry in alternative product development, and that PM and JT, whose patents mirror those of Eclipse, may need to attempt a licensing agreement with RJR in order to use their own patents. Evaluates the merits of each company's products, highlighting RJR's Premier and Eclipse. Opines that "whilst they may be of low sidestream, reduced ignition potential and reduced biological activity. . .it would be for third parties, government and ultimately consumers to judge whether these features are preferred." Reports on estimated cost and time needed to produce 250 million units of the product per year. Notes that RJR has obtained permission from the "German equivalent of the FDA" for limited marketing of Eclipse products, noting that the German Tobacco Ordinance would have to be revised in order for it to be commercially marketed. Comments that "RJR have successfully achieved a revision of the GTO in the past for widening additive use." Opines that PM's electrical heating devices may present "considerable technical and performance hurdles. . .which may prove insurmountable." Predicts BAT's own "moving furnace" type products to be 3-5 years away from commercial development, but that its "Greendot" type product could potentially compete with Eclipse on technical merits, the latter predicted to be commercially released in two years.
Lists agenda items including "Resocialisation of smoking" and "Project Ultimate/Alternative Smoking Articles."
Reports on technical specifications of the Premier construction. Shows labeled drawing of Premier components, and details actions of each. Reports that the heat source for Premier is a "high purity carbon element" that "is quite difficult to light, produces an unpleasant odour if lit with a match, difficult to extinguish before it has completely burnt down, and produces relatively high levels of CO when smoked." States that the insulator, which surrounds the fuel rod, "is made of glass fibres with an average diameter of 8 [micrometers]. . .greater than the size range defined by the World Health Organisation for respirable fibres." Notes that the added flavor of Premier, "predominately raspberry ketone and chocolate" was one of the major reasons for the product's failure with consumers. Reports that the role of the polypropylene part of the dual filter is "to filter any potential particles or fibres, without removing flavour from the smoke." Notes that the filter has "some ventilation." Analyzes the mainstream smoke produced by Premier, emphasizing the low number of compounds present in the mainstream particulate and mainstream vapor phases, respectively, when compared to a "reference" cigarette. Notes that "similar results are obtained for the sidestream analyses."
Lists date, sponsor, location and title of international meetings related to air quality and related health issues.
Refers to document titled "Defining Uncertainty in the Mathematics of Risk (presentation to the Challenges of Responsible Good Management Practices, Brussels, Belgium, Oct. 6-7, 1997)"
Attaches presentation on the use of Monte Carlo simulations in environmental health & safety risk management [presentation is physically attached to memo]. Requests feedback and invites recipient to discuss interests in Monte Carlo simulations.
Refers to "complete Regulatory Practice Meetings calendar for 1997 and first issue for 1998."
Lists date, sponsor, location and title and relevant topics of international meetings related to air quality and related health issues.
Discusses pending implementation of CEN Standard "Ventilation for Buildings - Design Criteria for the Indoor Environment," objections to the standard, and strategy to amend it or delay its passage. Claims that the Standard's tool for calculating outdoor air rates is not feasible, that "the contribution of ETS to the total pollution load is grossly overstated, and that it is based on "academic assumptions with limited practical applicability." Outlines immediate, short-term and long-term steps to address the Standard.
Reports that the "SRRC met and recommended that Philip Morris pursue the second strategy option" described in a previous memo. Defines the "second strategy option" only as "most consistent with current trends and tactics both within and outside the industry." Suggests that due to pending disbandment, neither the Tobacco Institute nor CTR would be "good sources of assistance." Expresses interest in discussing "the worldwide situation regarding these issues" with a Professor Bernard, but predicts little benefit.
Lists name, affiliated organization and country for each member of the CORESTA Task Force ETS meeting.
Reports on potential interview of Steve Parrish by NHK (Japanese National Broadcasting Corp.), and possible "messages" to be used. Notes that "themes of accommodation and extremism in the U.S. when it comes to attitudes toward smoking will be played up." States that "claims about addiction and ingredients" in relation to the U.S. industry have received wide media coverage in Japan during past months. Opines that Japanese have better "smoking manners, courtesy and tolerance" than Americans, and that that point might be beneficial to make during interview.