Discusses factors that author believes skew the Newark, New Jersey vital statistics on death rates for 1965-1975. Alleges that epidemiologists agree they lack validity as "they do not account for such factors as age, sex, race, etc...." Illustrates how changes in total population and age structure affects death rates, specifically those for cancer and heart disease. Questions accuracy of population figures reported by the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics as they relate to story in The New York Times. Compares figures of cancer deaths from previous years, illustrating how changes in population size affect death rates from both lung and all cancers.
Discusses content of newly released American Public Health Association paper that attributes cancer to "occupational and environmental, rather than lifestyle factors." States that the authors credit "occupational exposure to cancer-causing substances" rather than smoking as the main cause of lung cancer. Indicates the authors further charge that the "'lifestyle theory' of cancer causation" is being used to obviate chemical industry regulations. Cites authors' position that the present epidemic increase in cancer "cannot be explained by smoking." References attached copy of paper (not included).
Analyzes Newark cancer death rate vital statistics, using state New Jersey Department of Health and National Center for Health Statistics in response to New York Times article about excess cancer deaths. Points out "crude death rates conceal more information than they reveal" because "they do not account for such factors as age, sex, race, etc., each of which affects the magnitude of the relevant rate".
References enclosed materials to be reviewed (not included) from Alex Holtzman pertaining to "a significant development in the controversy regarding cigarette smoking and lung cancer." Solicits "any specific ideas concerning the publicizing of this material."
Invites recipients to meeting to discuss "possible ways of exploiting the Burch article in the U.S. media" and its distribution by Tobacco Institute. Notes Zahn will attempt to have wire services copy the dispatch of the article.
References article by Professor Philip Burch published in Great Britain's "New Scientist" weekly magazine, which argues "against the view that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer." Indicates rebuttal by Oxford Professor follows. Opines positive advertisement value fostered by the article and Professor Burch's points. Lists criticisms and writings on the smoking and health controversy submitted by Professor Burch to British medical journals. States new article " is likely to draw criticism, but may also attract some supporters." Recommends bringing "new evidence of the controversy to the attention of the media in this country."
References attached "Official Action recently received in this case" (not included) and states intention to prepare response. Advises against any writings, interpretations, or analyses at this time regarding the "Action or the invention." Indicates intention to "get from the Inventor(s) anything needed to help us in preparing a response." Invites opinion as to viablity of case.
States "Dr. Jenkins gave a brief presentation of the historical evolution of the 210Po issue." Lists key points as the following: 1) January, 1964 Radford paper, published in Science, indicates "210Po, an alpha emitter, is a natural contaminant of tobacco and is present in cigarette smoke." 2) Unpublished results from R&D verified polonium levels in tobacco and cigarette smoke by 1967-68. 3) The medical profession stated polonium was rapidly cleared from the respiratory tract. 4) May, 1974 Martell paper, published in Nature, claims insoluble particles of high lead radioactivity is produced during smoking, and speculatively results in "high local alpha irradiation (hot spots) being delivered to the bronchial epithelium and resulting in bronchial cancer in smokers." 5) Martell paper, published in 1975 American Scientist, attributes "most of man's ills to alpha irradiation" and references "the problems associated with cigarette smoking as forewarning the dangers of a nuclear energy economy." 6) 1975 paper presentation by Radford and Martell in Scotland "dealt with the residence time of insoluble particles in the lung and permitted a calculation of the dose of alpha irradiation delivered to the smoker." 7) Subsequent unpublished research at R&D indicates "some major discrepencies in the quantitative aspects of the [Martell's] data" which "would have reduced their doses estimates by an order of magnitude." 8) Discussion ensued on research with hydroponically grown tobacco and lead. Discusses current activity on polonium-210 research citing four recently published papers. Indicates Mr. Holtzman took great interest in R&D manuscript and is being supplied with additional research materials in order to assess "potential problems of low level radiation in all PM operations..." States "The need for monitoring ..." Opines success of meeting contingent upon "reconsideration of the publication of R&D manuscript."
References attached requested analysis of "newscript" (not included). Comments on explicitness of report and recommends retaining for future use. States "In light of the continued interest of the polonium subject, you may wish to reexamine the advisability of publishing the Jenkins et al paper."
States VdC [Verband der Deutschen Ziagarettenindustrie] board decided to sponsor research with emphasis on nicotine uptake and health effects studies, anticipating that if studies find: (a) smokers adjust "nicotine uptake to their requirements" and (b) nicotine is harmless, "this will offer an opportunity for the manufacture of cigarettes with sufficient nicotine content and lowest possible condensate and gas phase". Notes nicotine is considered "harmful substance" in Germany. Indicates R.J. Reynolds raised "substantial objections" to policy and failed in attempt to marshal support within VdC to defeat the policy. Affirms commitment to policy with controls over research results and dissemination, including attributing publications to non-industry scientists "so that no doubts can be raised". Comprises legible handwritten document with left side of page missing (see "Document Quotes" field for complete transcript).
Advocates funding research "since the development of antibodies could lead to a radio immunoassay of lecitihin [sp] cholesterol acyltransferase which would be useful in studying the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis" (attachments missing).
Recommends Soloff (Temple University Health Sciences Center) for a one-year Council for Tobacco Research (CTR) Special Project grant to purify an enzyme and produce its antibody generated through previous CTR grant "Immunoassay of Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase [LCAT] after Eating and Smoking in Health and Atherosclerosis". Indicates LCAT "is fundamental to the integration of fat metabolism". Requests "responses as early as possible". Includes note in marginalia.
Outlines a research project evaluating different dosimeters and their sensitivity to constituents of environmental cigarette smoke, including carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ammonia. States that each researcher working on the project will submit a "fairly comprehensive protocol" for the particular constituents they will be researching. Mentions that the sensitivity, duration of effectiveness, and the effect of smoke on each dosimeter will be determined. Determines the concentration range for each constituent. Same as Bates #1000018661.
Outlines a research project evaluating different dosimeters and their sensitivity to constituents of environmental cigarette smoke, including carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ammonia. States that each researcher working on the project will submit a "fairly comprehensive protocol" for the particular constituents they will be researching. Mentions that the sensitivity, duration of effectiveness, and the effect of smoke on each dosimeter will be determined. Determines the concentration range for each constituent. Same as Bates #1000018646.
Encloses copy of a "recent telex to Dr. Rylander." Notes that approval has been received to proceed with discussions with Dr. Rylander regarding "the development of detailed plans for the proposed workshop." Enclosure not included.
Acknowledges receipt of the "final Batelle proposal." Notes that "it's as good as we can do under the circumstances."
Indicates receipt of research proposals from A.D. Little, Inc. and Battelle Memorial Laboratories via Senkus "regarding the chemical behavior of environmental cigarette smoke". Suggests postponing starting project until both the Hazelton and Franklin proposals have been received.
Notes on business card: "Tom - I have written to Dr. Cline about a follow-up report. Bill 6-4".
Recommends monetary support for Doctor Brotman's and Dr. Freedman's project. Notes that their research regards the categorizing of certain behaviors as deviant, "thereby subjecting the exhibitor of such behavior to criminal penalties or medical treatment." States that Doctors Brotman and Freedman are familiar with tobacco-related disorders and their inclusion in the DSM-III. Mentions that Brotman and Freedman's interests are primarily behavioral and not focused on the "pharmacological aspects of subtance use." Suggests that this project be funded through direct company funding.
Encloses proposals, budgets, curricula vitae, and bibliographies from Doctor Freedman and Dr. Brotman. Recommends approval for their proposals, noting that "the total cost for the two years would be $400,000." States that both Janet Brown and Bill Shinn also recommend approval. Requests a response "by early December." No enclosures attached.
Discusses Becker's industry-funded publications identifying "a glycoprotein [tobacco glycoprotein ('TGP')] in tobacco leaf, smoke and condensate...responsible for numerous conditions and diseases (in both smokers, and nonsmokers), including allergy, cardiovascular disease and sudden death...by affecting the clotting system." Follow-up studies of TGP ("probably a polyacrylate") by others have found an "artifact" associated with TGP "produces the same biological activity as that ascribed by Becker to TGP." Asserts that Becker "'erroneously' interpreted this biological activity and requests funds to pay consultant for follow-up study (attachment missing).
Discusses industry-funded research claiming to isolate an allergen ("glycoprotein" or "TGP") from tobacco smoke. Remarks that Becker's TGP "included a substantial artifact." Relates that Stedman and Becker believe that it should be tested using Becker's original assays for biological activity. Advocates additional funding to generate "25 milligrams of artifact" for researchers at Tulane and other institutions for biological testing.
Transmits recent papers and abstracts related to radioactivity issues (attachments missing). Notes that "the entire subject of low level radiation effects on public health from whatever source...is one we must be aware of and must be addressing." Recommends revising "our manuscript" for it to be published. Concludes that "recent literature yields evidence in support of our data and continues to show that the polonium-210 issue...will not be leaving us." Identical to Bates 1000083336.
Transmits commentary from Osdene proposing Friberg "work on the detoxification of cadmium in the human...inasmuch as there is cadmium in tobacco and smoke". Relates to Bates 1000027121, 1000284503 (attachment missing).
Regards paper and letter to Holtzman as "essentially a request for a grant" and suggests several cadmium-related topics for funding Friberg "since he is definitely a friend of the industry." Mentions Friberg's book on cadmium has been ordered for the company library. Offers, if approved, to meet with Friberg on next trip to Sweden.